Guidelines for Teachers and others

The symbol refers to external links to www.
The symbol refers to demonstrations to view.

Words appearing in red are explained in the

This website was designed as a resource for those who wish to learn about x-rays.

A primary concern in the way the site has been structured is to meet the needs of teachers who wish to use it in the classroom.
Teachers might first review the site, select what areas will meet their students needs and devise a scheme of work and an appropriate time scale. (e.g. Use three 40 minutes sessions for the topic).

Naturally students may wish to use this website on their own, and pursue the subject of x-rays in their own way at a pace that suits them.

Some students may find it serves their needs best as a revision aid.

Hopefully the general reader will find it accessible and informative.

The Leaving Certificate Syllabus for Physics, has the same entry for Higher Level as for Lower Level. Therefore the same material may be covered for both.

Depth of treatment

X-rays produced when high-energy
electrons collide with target.
Principles of the hot-cathode
X-ray tube.
X-ray production as inverse of
photoelectric effect.
Mention of properties of X-rays:
• electromagnetic waves
• ionisation
• penetration.

General health hazards in use of ionising radiations, e.g. X-rays.
The effect of ionising
radiation on humans, the time
of exposure, and the type of
tissue irradiated.

Uses of X-rays in medicine and




Health hazards of ionising

Medical and dental X-rays.

Radiation protection.

What each page has to offer and a suggestion for how it may be used is set out in the table below

Home Use the table of links as a site-map Check the aims of this site Compare your aims with those
of the site
Consult the teacher guidelines on a regular basis
Discovery Select relevant historical details View the Timeline and note certain dates View the Nobel Prize site (re Roentgen)  
Properties Outline the properties of
Discuss their significance Anticipate their uses and dangers Memorize the list of properties
Ionisation Explore the concept View the demonstration Recognise the dangers Memorize precautions
Uses Gain overview Relate uses to properties Explore: Security, Industry, Research Select and memorize appropriate examples
Medical uses

Identify 2 categories:
Diagnosis &

View the external links on this page Construct a poster outlining the medical uses of x-rays  
Dangers Identify the dangers Recognise the precautions Make a poster Become familiar with the term dose
Tubes Explore evolution of
x-ray tubes
Identify their control features Study diagrams Read about Coolidge on external link
Diffraction Study the concept of diffraction Recognise the difficulty for x-ray diffraction View the demonstration of diffraction Relate diffraction to spectra & crystals
Absorption View the animation Scan the theory    
Overview Relate x-rays to other E-M radiation Relate x-rays to the wider world of physics View appropriate links  
Glossary Select relevant terms Memorize appropriate material    
Exercises Study example Select appropriate tasks Do the tasks Evaluate outcomes
Links View links Select appropriate ones Map out objectives in viewing them  
Teacher Guidelines Compare what this site offers .. ...with the requirements of the course... ...and the ability and interest of your students... ...and devise a scheme to suit.